Android Architecture

Android architecture

The Four basic layers that accumulatively Create Android Architecture or Android Software Stack

Android Architecture is composed of 4 main layers :

  1. Linux Kernel
  2. Native Libraries
  3. Application Framework
  4. Applications


1. Linux kernel

Linux kernel is responsible for the power management, battery management and device management in the operating system. Linux kernel is actually used for the proper functionality of the hardware devices in the Android mobile. The hardware devices such as camera, keypad are operated by using Linux kernel also the networking tasks of the phone. The Android uses kernel also for interfacing to different devices which kernel is actually really good at. The basic foundation of android operating system architecture is Linux kernel, such is the importance of it. It is the basic background of Android architecture and the basic layer on which any other layer is stand upon.

Let See First Android Architecture Diagram:


 2. Native libraries

After the very basic layer of Linux kernel, comes the layer of Native libraries in Android architecture. The Native libraries possess a set of other small libraries and two of it’s basic components are (DVM) Dalvik virtual machine and core libraries. The Dalvik virtual machine makes the Android application run on its operating system. Dalvik virtual machine look after the features like threading and memory management. While to understand core libraries, we need to see few of it’s components.

  • Dalvik VM Specific Libraries

The Dalvik VM Specific Libraries is usually not used by majority of Android developers. But it is a collection of libraries and connects directly with dalvik virtual machine.



  • Java Interoperability Libraries

Java Interoperability Libraries is used for networking, file management and string handling. Most of its components are created on java and it is an open source code of implementation.

  • Android libraries

Android Libraries are the component of core libraries that used for Android development purpose graphic drawing, database and user interface building. e.g;

  • android.database
  • android.hardware

See alsoComponents of Android

  3. Android Framework


Android Framework is the third layer from the bottom which performs high quality functions. This android framework has a significant value for the android developers as it provides services to application in the form of the java classes. Android developers are having the full authority these services in their developmental tasks.

Few of the basic services that android framework provide are:

  • Activity manager

The lifecycle of the application is controlled by the activity manager.

android activity lifecycle

  • Content providers

It is the service through which different application share data in a device.

  • Notifications Manager

As you can judge from its name, it is responsible for the notification and alarm alert to the users.

  • View System

It is utilize to create user interface via use of some set of views.

 4. Application layer

The final and the top most layer of the Android operating system is the Android application we use. It includes every application from the basic component such as home, contact, and network to the complicated application of browser settings and other outsourced applications like Games.

See also: How to become successful Android Developer

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